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Cegal dictionary

Have you ever been annoyed by three-letter abbreviations, constantly new, or words and expressions unknown to you that are difficult to understand? You are not alone. Players in the IT industry often confuse customers with concept sketches, complex platform messages and three-letter abbreviations. This is something we at Cegal want to do something about.

This is why we have created this dictionary, with relevant words and expressions in technology and energy. In the dictionary you will find an overview with explanations of selected concepts together with a short description of what Cegal does in the relevant areas

Azure Blob Storage
Azure Blob Storage is a cloud-based storage service from Microsoft Azure that allows companies to store unstructured data as blobs in containers.
Accessibility refers to the deliberate design and development practices aimed at ensuring that websites and digital applications are usable and navigable by all individuals.
The Australian Petroleum Production and Exploration Association, known as APPEA, is a non-profit organization representing companies which explore and produce oil and gas in Australia.
Azure Data Factory
Azure Data Factory is a cloud-based service for data integration where you can coordinate and initiate processes for processing large amounts of raw data.
Angular is a modern open-source TypeScript-based development platform.
Cegal Blueback Avary is a re-designed, highly optimized post-stack processing and geophysical prospect de-risking workflow.
Application Development
Application development is about identifying a need, and then putting in place exactly the solution that will cover the need.
Ansible is a simple IT (Information Technology) automation platform that makes your applications and systems easier to implement and maintain.
Exploring the AVO relationships in seismic data can prove to be extremely valuable and can provide information about possible oil and gas accumulations.
Access point
In order for companies to send electronic invoices, they must connect to an access point in the e-commerce network.
Azure DevOps
As the name suggests, Azure DevOps has a broad scope. However, Azure DevOps is not the same as DevOps, and it is not actually necessary to use Azure either
Apple Pay
Launched in 2014, Apple Pay is Apple's own mobile payment and digital wallet service.
AvtaleGiro is a Norwegian payment service for the automatic payment of regular bills.
Oracle Application Express (APEX) is a low-code development framework which makes it possible to build scalable, secure enterprise apps, with a variety of features, which can be distributed anywhere.
‘Agile’ comes from the word ‘agility’, which means agile or mobile. For us, it's about working smarter by shifting our focus in the way we develop software.
Azure is a cloud platform and cloud infrastructure developed by Microsoft.
AWS stands for “Amazon Web Services”, a global cloud platform which offers hundreds of IT services from a global network of data centres.
Application integration
Application integration is the process of enabling independently designed applications to work together.
API stands for “Application Programming Interface”, also known as programming interface, is a software intermediary that enables two applications to talk to each other.
Automation is a technical process which aims to make a phenomenon automatic, so that it controls itself to some degree.
AI stands for Artificial Intelligence, or Artificial Intelligence, a collective term for technologies that make computer systems “intelligent”.
AMS stands for “Advanced Measurement Systems”. The new electricity meters are also referred to by many other names, such as smart meter.
Black box AI
Black box AI refers to artificial intelligence systems, whose internal workings are not transparent or easily understandable by humans.
Business Process Automation (BPA) refers to the use of technology to streamline and automate business processes, boosting efficiency and reducing costs.
Bard is Google's answer to OpenAI’s ChatGPT and Microsoft’s Bing Chat. It is a generative AI search and chatbot that makes use of LLMs (Large Language Models) to generate a response to the user.
BCP (Business Continuity Plan) is the plan that describes how a serious interruption to the business's processes is handled.
Backend development is also called server-side programming. This is the development of the server software in a web application. This often delivers data and information in a format Frontend can easily use, usually via an API.
Blueback Reservoir
Cegal and Blueback Reservoir joined forces in 2014 to provide a global offering of both IT and software services, and solutions to the oil and gas industry.   
Basecare Discover™
Basecare Discover is a secure and simple solution from Cegal for monitoring database systems and proactively maintaining them.
A backup is a copy of data. The copy is produced with the aim of enabling data to be recreated in the event that it is lost.
BaseCenter service which takes total responsibility for the customer's operation, maintenance and development of databases, integration platforms and integrations.
Big Data
Big Data is an expression that is used in relation to a massive volume of both structured and unstructured data.
Boozt.ai is a Norwegian chatbot company which produces software based on artificial intelligence.
Business Intelligence (BI)
BI stands for “Business Intelligence”, an umbrella term for IT tools which collect and analyse information stored in your company's various computer systems.
CER is a directive from the EU in the area of digital resilience, where critical entities are given greater responsibility to protect themselves against events in IT systems that have negative consequences for society.
Critical Outsourcing
Critical IT infrastructure outsourcing involves transferring technological functions and services to external suppliers, creating efficiencies and cost savings, but also posing potential risks.
Conversational AI
Conversational Artificial Intelligence is a branch of AI that focuses on developing and using AI systems to interact and naturally communicate with humans.
Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) refers to the capture, transport, and storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) – a greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming and climate change.  
ChatGPT is a prototype artificial intelligence chatbot developed by OpenAI that specializes in dialogue.
CHECKDB is a Database Console Command (DBCC) and it is used to identify errors in the SQL Server database.
Cetegra is a secure and vendor-neutral cloud-based platform, designed to ensure integration of legacy and modern systems, applications, services and data.
C# (C Sharp) is an object-oriented, multi-paradigm programming language developed and maintained by Microsoft, and launched with Microsoft's .net framework.
CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) is used to style and lay out web pages. CSS allows us to control exactly how HTML elements look in the browser, presenting the markup using whatever design you like.
Cyber security
Cyber security is the protection of information and systems in Cyberspace, which include the interaction of people, processes, and technology.
Cloud Native
Cloud Native is an approach to building and running systems which exploit the benefits of the Cloud computing delivery model.
CIS System
A Customer Information System (CIS) is a business-critical system for the energy companies.
Cegal ePortal
ePortal is a financial management solution for the energy industry, delivered by Cegal Finans (now Konti AS), which was previously a subsidiary of Cegal AS.
Cegal Finans
Cegal Finans was previously a subsidiary of Cegal AS.
By using a Client as a Service (CaaS) solution, a partner can administer and manage its customer's laptops and desktop PCs throughout the entire lifecycle.
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is about focus and work, on a voluntary basis, around social and environmental considerations.
Container technology
Container technology is a method of packaging an application so that it can run in isolation from other processes.
A chatbot, a short form of chat-bot, is software which a person can talk to via a chat interface.
Cloud Computing
Cloud computing, online cloud, cloud, the cloud or cloud services is a collective term for common IT services which are offered from a network of data centres.
The Digital Operational Resilience Act (DORA) is an EU regulation for banks and other companies providing financial services within the EU to ensure the resilience of IT systems and networks.
Distributed Cloud
Distributed cloud is a fundamental concept in cloud technology that entails the distribution of computing, storage, and network services across various geographically dispersed locations.
Data Resilience
Data resilience is best summed up as your organization's ability to maintain stability and continue operations in the face of unforeseen challenges.
Databricks is a cloud-based platform designed for data processing, primarily targeting data engineers and data scientists.
Data Capital
Data capital refers to the value and potential that organizations derive from their data assets.
Data Management
Data Management plays a crucial role in the success of businesses across various industries and refers to collecting, storing, organizing, and analyzing data to ensure its accuracy, accessibility, and security.
Data Scientist
A Data Scientist is a person who specializes in extracting the essence from large amounts of data using machine learning.
Data Science
Data Science has evolved over time to become a multidisciplinary field that combines scientific methods, processes, algorithms, and systems to extract knowledge and insights from structured and unstructured data.
Design System
Design Systems play a crucial role in maintaining brand identity and ensuring that user interfaces are visually cohesive and user-friendly.
District heating
District heating is an energy distribution technique where heat is generated centrally and distributed to multiple buildings or residences through a network of pipes.
Database instance
Microsoft Dataverse er en alsidig, cloud-baseret platform, der tilbyder virksomheder en effektiv og sikker måde at administrere deres data på. Dens low code tilgang og integration med andre Power Platform-applikationer gør den til en omfattende løsning til datastyring og analyse. 
Database index
A database index is a data structure that improves the speed of data retrieval on a database table.
DataOps combines agile development, DevOps and Lean manufacturing.
Data Lakehouse
Combining the best of a Data Lake with a Data Warehouse, Data Lakehouse stores the vast amounts of organized, semi-structured and unstructured data that it receives from various business applications, systems and gadgets in an enterprise.
Data Crawling
Data crawling is a method which involves data mining from different web sources.
Database Monitoring
The monitoring of databases is used in mission-critical environments in order to obtain advance warnings or pointers if something is wrong, or about to go wrong.
A database administrator, or DBA, is an information engineer who is responsible for managing or performing all activities relating to maintenance of a successful database environment.
Data Migration
Data migration is the process of transferring large amounts of data from one place to another. Such transfers are often carried out in connection with system upgrades or replacements.
Disaster Recovery
Disaster recovery (DR) means having guidelines, procedures and tools in place which enable businesses to regain the use of critical systems and IT infrastructure as soon as possible following a disaster.
Dedupe is an abbreviation of ‘deduplication’. It means eliminating unnecessary copies of a file or parts of a file.
Data Warehouse
A data warehouse is a central database where we collect different types of data from the business and compile data in a way that makes it easy to gain insight.
Digital Twin
A digital twin is defined as a digital or virtual copy of a physical object which exists in the real world.
Design Thinking
In Design thinking, new solutions are developed based on the actual needs of the end user.
Digital Transformation
Digital transformation is the use of new, fast and often changing digital technology to solve problems. It is about transforming manual processes into digital processes or further digitalising existing digital processes.
DL (Deep Learning)
DL stands for Deep learning, a learning process which aims to train what are known as ‘deep artificial neural networks’. This is a pivotal method in machine learning – where is based on the principle that computers should acquire knowledge about something they do not know or can do already.
The concept of digitalisation is used not only to convert analogue data into digital, but also to introduce digital technology which streamlines processes and transforms everyday life.
DevOps is a holistic concept for systematic and structured collaboration between development and operations teams – Development/Dev and Operations/Ops.
Database-as-a-Service (DBaaS) is a cloud database, a database that typically runs on a cloud platform, where access to the database is provided as a service.
Data Centre
A data centre is a building, a dedicated room in a building, or a group of buildings that is used to house computers, computer systems and associated components.
Data Wrangling
Data wrangling, sometimes known as Data munging, can be explained as data reconciliation, data adjustment or data arranging.
Data Mining
Data mining is a process, while computer science is a field. The aim of data mining is to make the data more usable, while the aim of data science is to build data-centric products for an organisation.
A database is a collection of data/information that is stored on a single electronic medium, so that a computer program can consult it in order to answer questions.
Explainable AI (XAI)
Explainable AI (XAI) is a set of tools and frameworks that make artificial intelligence systems transparent and understandable. It focuses on creating AI that not only delivers accurate results but also offers understandable explanations for their decisions.  
Energyworld is an annual conference for IT in the energy industry, organized by Computerworld, held in Stavanger, Norway.
The EU AI Act is the world's first comprehensive Artificial Intelligence (AI) law. As the use of AI tools is rapidly expanding, it is crucial to have regulations in place, especially considering that AI systems are not developed without risks.
The European Association of Geoscientists and Engineers (EAGE) is a professional organization for geoscientists and engineers, established in 1951 with a worldwide membership.
ETL stands for extract, transform and load – which is three functions that are combined in one tool. ETL is used to manage different types of data.
Ethical AI
Ethical AI is artificial intelligence that follows well-defined ethical guidelines that concern fundamental values.
ESG is an abbreviation that stands for Environmental, Social, and Governance.
eInvoice 2.0
With eFaktura 2.0 and the "Yes please to everything" functionality, the consumer accepts all eFaktura agreements in their online banking system.
eInvoice B2C
eFaktura B2C is a Norwegian service which enables companies to send invoices electronically to their private customers
eInvoice B2B
eFaktura B2B (Business – Business) enables companies to send electronic invoices to customers and suppliers.
EHF (Electronic Trading Format) is a Norwegian adaptation to a pan-European invoice format. It is used by central government, municipal and private enterprises for receiving invoices.
Edge Computing
Edge Computing is a term that is used when data is to be stored and processed close to the source or users of the data.
ELMA (a Norwegian abbreviation for “Electronic recipient address register”) is a Norwegian register of enterprises which can accept documents in EHF format.
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), also known as a financial system. It is not necessarily a single product, but a suite of applications that ‘talk to each other’.
Enova is a state-owned enterprise which aims to contribute to more efficient and renewable energy and climate solutions
EnergyX is a Cegal division which delivers software and services within the main energy business domains like oil, gas, hydro, solar and wind.
Energy is used in so many different fields; here, we are concentrating on energy as defined in physics and the part of potential energy that is known as ‘electrical energy’.
Elhub is the Norwegian power industry's common data hub, where all data from electricity meters across the country is collected in a common system.
FinOps stands for Financial Operations, and it refers to the practice of bringing together finance, operations, and technology teams to optimize the costs of cloud computing within an organization.  
Full-stack is a term used as a description of the process or delivery where a developer or a team delivers both the front-end and the back-end of a given system.
Front-end programming is also called client-side programming, and is the development of websites with the associated client-side programming, for example with frameworks such as React, Angular or Vue.
Flows is an architectural component for computation and results management, developed and designed by Cegal to meet growing challenges in geoscience software.
Geothermal Energy
GitHub Copilot
GitHub Copilot is an innovative code completion tool developed by GitHub in collaboration with OpenAI.
Google Gemini is a massive language model (LLM) developed by Google AI.
Green Energy
Green energy is a subset of renewable energy and represents the energy sources that have the least amount of environmental impact, meaning it produces little or no greenhouse gas emissions or pollution.
GIS is short for Geographic Information System. GIS is a framework designed to capture, store, analyze, manage, and present spatial or geographic data.
Generative AI
The use of artificial intelligence (AI) to create, or generate data or information, is referred to as Generative AI.
Geophysics is a discipline of geosciences concerned with the use of mathematics, physics, programming, and modeling to study the physical processes and properties of the Earth.
GeoCloud is Cegal's vendor-neutral cloud solution within the oil and gas industry that gathers all your applications and data in one integrated platform.
Google Cloud
Google Cloud Platform, is a suite of cloud services provided by Google.
Geoscience is a collective term for science and research related to the Earth, and is part of planetary sciences
Geology is the study of the Earth — how it is built up and how it develops.
Google Pay
Google Pay is an easy way to pay, where physical bank cards are replaced by a smartphone, tablet or other supported device, such as a smartwatch.
General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is a regulation which is intended to protect the privacy of citizens of EU and EEA countries.
Guarantee of Origin
A Guarantee of Origin is an electronic guarantee that serves as documentation that electrical power has been generated and delivered to the grid from a specified power plant.
Grid company
A grid company is a company that owns and operates a transmission network for electrical energy. Grid companies own and are responsible for the electricity distribution grid and for ensuring that the electricity is transported to your house.
GoLang is a statically written, compiled programming language designed by Google.
Grid tariff
Grid tariff is a fee that is intended to cover the development, operation and maintenance of the electricity grid. The grid tariff is paid to the local grid company and collected on behalf of the state.
Hydropower, or hydroelectric power, is one of the oldest and largest sources of renewable energy, that generates electricity by harnessing the energy from flowing or falling water.
Hydrocarbon Accounting
Hydrocarbon accounting is a process used in the oil and gas industry to keep track of the ownership of oil and gas from the moment it's extracted from the ground until it's delivered into storage.
Hexagon GIS
Hexagon is a technology company providing software and hardware to various industries, including geospatial. One of their core areas of expertise is GIS (Geographic Information Systems).
HSEQ, which stands for Health, Safety, Environment, and Quality, is an integrated framework for ensuring health, safety, environmental, and quality standards in organizations and businesses.
Hyperautomation is the use of advanced technology such as Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning and Robotic Process Automation to automate and optimize tasks that were previously created by humans.
Hybrid Cloud
Hybrid cloud is the combination of a public cloud and a private cloud, creating a computing environment that allows organizations to utilize the advantages of both types.
HTML (HyperText Markup Language) is the fundamental technology used to define the structure of a webpage.
Cegal uses HPC both on-premises and in the cloud. Cetegra offers a turn-key HPC solution.
The Cetegra high-performance desktop has been developed by Cegal to give our customers both the flexibility and the transparency they need to achieve their goals.
HashiCorp Nomad
HashiCorp Nomad is a simple, flexible and production grade "workload orchestrator", which enables organisations to distribute, manage and scale any application.
HashiCorp Vault
HashiCorp Vault is a tool for secure access to secrets. A secret is anything that you want to control access to, such as API keys, passwords and certificates. 
HashiCorp is an open source driven software company founded by Mitchell Hashimoto and Armon Dadgar in 2012 with the aim of revolutionising data centre management: application development, delivery and maintenance. 
Human Algorithms
Artificial intelligence/Machine learning/Deep learning are umbrella terms for "intelligent" or learning algorithms. They can therefore have a human angle, what we call "Human Algorithms" — the human side of algorithms.
Hubro is a suite of assistance, monitoring and operating services for databases provided by Cegal. We chose the name Hubro for this service precisely because the Hubro has 360-degree vision and incredible night vision. Our solution looks after your data while you sleep.
Hadoop is an open source code program designed to handle the storage of large amounts of data and the running of applications on clusters of ordinary computers.
HAN port
HAN stands for ‘Home Area Network’. All new electricity meters (smart meters) have an output called the HAN port, which allows for new solutions and services under the umbrella term ‘smart homes’.
IT Rights Management
IT rights management is all about controlling who has access to what within your company's digital world. Think of it like having keys to different rooms in a building – not everyone should have access to every room.
Intelligent Automation
In contrast to automating manual and repetitive tasks, intelligent automation integrates cognitive capabilities into automated processes, enabling systems to adapt, learn, and make decisions autonomously.
Information Security
Information security revolves around the fundamental principles of Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability, commonly referred to as the CIA triad.  
IMAGE is short for The International Meeting for Applied Geoscience and Energy and has been created by industry professionals to bring together multiple disciplines of the geoscience sector.
ITIL is a global standard for IT organizations to optimize service delivery and customer satisfaction.
Intersectionality means privilege and discrimination are not limited to one single dimension, but are shaped by the intersections of various social categories and identities.
ISO 27001
ISO 27001 is a standard in the area of Information security management, issued by ISO (The International Organization for Standardization).
ISMS stands for Information Security Management System. It’s a set of policies and rules for governing processes, controls, and technology.
Infrastructure as code (IaC) is the managing and provisioning of infrastructure through code instead of through manual processes.
Integrations are the foundation of IT solutions where systems that are not developed using the same coding system can interact and work together as a whole.
Internet of Senses
Internet of Senses is about using the brain as an interface to exchange the cognitive senses with users. Technology will 'dilute' the interface between a physical and a digital experience
Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) is an infrastructure for data processing which is administered and managed over the internet.
IoT stands for the ‘Internet of Things’. It concerns the things around us that can be connected to the internet. When things are connected to the internet, they can interconnect and talk to each other and with their surroundings.
Interconnect is the term that is used for the collaboration between Oracle and Microsoft, where Oracle Cloud is seamlessly connected to Microsoft Azure.
Invoice template
An invoice template is a layout which helps companies to create and send customer invoices.
JavaScript, often abbreviated as JS, is a programming language that is one of the core technologies of the World Wide Web, alongside HTML and CSS.
Java is an object-oriented programming language
KMD WorkZone
KMD WorkZone is an advanced ESDH (Electronic Case and Document Management) platform designed to model and manage organizations' business understanding.
Kotlin is a general-purpose, statically typed programming language developed by JetBrains.
Kanban is a method of dealing with complex development tasks and originates from the agile tradition.
Klimahub.no is a portal that presents the climate footprint of companies in Norway.
Kubernetes is an open container for data clusters developed by Google.
Kafka is an open source streaming platform
Large Language Models
Large Language Models (LLMs) are a type of artificial intelligence models that uses deep learning to analyze and understand written language. They are designed to learn and generate language based on a vast amount of training data like books, articles, and websites.  
Linux is the core that is used by Linux-based operating systems. Unlike the Windows and OS X for Mac operating systems, Linux-based operating systems are based on open source.
Low-code is a software development approach which enables applications to be delivered both faster and with minimal hand-coding.
Lean is a methodology for developing businesses and products which aims to shorten product development cycles and rapidly determine whether or not a proposed business model is viable.
Microsoft Graph
Microsoft Graph is a comprehensive API interface that provides access to the large scale of resources, signals, relationships, and insights that are available across Microsoft's cloud services.
Microsoft Fabric
Microsoft Fabric, or MS Fabric, is an end-to-end, unified data platform as a Service – bringing together all the data and analytics that organizations need.
Microsoft 365 Copilot
Microsoft 365 Copilot is an AI assistant that helps you work smarter in Microsoft 365 apps. It can help you create documents, presentations, spreadsheets, emails, chats, meetings, and more. Microsoft 365 Copilot is based on Bing Chat Enterprise but with more advanced features.
Microsoft Copilot
Microsoft Copilots are artificial intelligence (AI) companions that can help you with various tasks across different applications and experiences. Microsoft Copilot is the new name of Bing Chat Enterprise. 
Mission Critical
Mission Critical is a term that is used in various contexts. Usually, it is about identifying and prioritizing various tasks, systems, or functions that often play a decisive role in an organization, business, or project.
The Metaverse describes a hypothetical future version of the internet that is more immersive and interconnected.
Microsoft Dataverse
Microsoft Dataverse is a versatile, cloud-based platform that offers businesses an efficient and secure way to manage their data.
As the word suggests, multi-cloud, multi cloud or multicloud computing is the use of clouds from more than one public cloud provider.
Machine learning
ML is short for machine learning, which is a branch of artificial intelligence (AI), a multidisciplinary field with contributions from computer science, mathematics, computational statistics and others.
MongoDB stands for Mongo Database, and is a popular platform-independent document-oriented database application.
Mobile payment
With mobile payment, you can easily pay from or via your mobile phone using an app. Instead of paying by cash or credit card, you can use a mobile phone to pay for a wide range of services.
MS SQL stands for Microsoft SQL Server and is Microsoft's database management system.
Managed Services
Managed Services can be explained as outsourcing of the responsibility to maintain a variety of processes and functions in order to improve operations and reduce expenses in a business.
Multichannel is a term that is used in many arenas. In the "billing world", it means "a common platform for distributing all types of documents via all available distribution channels."
Microservices Architecture is an architectural style that structures an application as a collection of services.
MySQL is a database management system which is licensed as open source and runs on most common operating systems.
MLOps or ML Ops stands for ‘machine learning operations’ and can be described as DevOps for machine learning.
Microsoft is a US software company best known for the Windows operating system and the Office software suite.
Net Zero
Net zero refers to the balance between greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted into the atmosphere and the amount removed from it. The ultimate goal of net zero is to eliminate or significantly reduce the contribution to global warming and mitigate the impacts of climate change.
NIS2 is an EU Directive (2022/2555) aimed at increasing the security of networks and information systems for essential services.
Over recent years NextGen has been widely used to describe a product or technology that has been developed to replace current products or technology.
NoSQL is a database that can handle vast amounts of unstructured data in different ways compared to SQL (relational database) with tables and rows.
NFC is short for “Near-Field Communication”.
Operational Technology
Operational Technology (OT) refers to the hardware and software used to monitor and control physical devices, processes, and infrastructure in various industries, including the energy sector.
The Open Group OSDU™ (Open Subsurface Data Universe) Forum is a conglomerate of leading oil and gas companies.
One Dimensional Stochastic Inversion (ODiSI) is an innovative approach to seismic inversion.
Oracle Exadata
Oracle Analytics is a complete suite of Business Intelligence, reporting and visualisation tools.
‘On-Premises’ means that local software is installed and runs on computers in the company's own IT environment. This is used instead of an external facility, such as a server farm or cloud solution.
Oracle Analytics
Oracle Analytics is a complete suite of Business Intelligence, reporting and visualisation tools.
Open Source
Some programmers and companies choose to make source code for a computer program available online, so that other people can inspect, modify and use it for free. This is often called Open Source.
Operating system
An operating system is the most important software which runs on a computer. It controls the computer's memory, processes and all software and hardware.
ODA is often used as an abbreviation for Oracle Database Appliance.
Oracle ODI
Oracle ODI stands for Oracle Data Integrator.
Oracle OCI
Oracle OCI stands for Oracle Cloud Infrastructure
Oracle CPU/SPU
Oracle Critical Patch Update (CPU) is an ongoing series of regularly issued fixes for security flaws in products made or maintained by Oracle.
Oracle is a US listed company which develops IT tools for database storage, company planning, and customer relationship management systems.
Purdue model
The Purdue model is a part of the Purdue Enterprise Reference Architecture (PERA) developed to model and visualize flows for network-connected OT systems. This model was first introduced in 1992 by Theodore J. Williams of the Purdue University Consortium.
Prototyping is a fundamental process in the development of digital products, websites, or applications, allowing teams to explore and refine ideas before fully committing to implementation.
Prompt Engineering
Prompt engineering (PE) is an emerging discipline within the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI). With the advent of ChatGPT, Midjourney and other conversational/ generative AI systems you need to interact with them in a specific way so that you get the desired response.
Pronouns are the words you use when talking about someone, for example, she, him, they. Lately, there has been a shift in the way people use them. 
Pearson VUE
Pearson VUE provides computer-based testing for information technology, academic, government and professional testing programs around the world.
Power Automate
Power Automate is a versatile user-friendly cloud-based workflow automation tool, that allows you to easily streamline your business workflow by automating repetitive manual tasks and processes, putting automation in the hands of the user.
Power Apps
Power Apps is a part of the low code Microsoft Power platform, and provides a quick development environment where your business can build custom apps that fit your business needs.
Cegal can offer to host Petrel, along with any other software applications a customer may use as part of the GeoCloud/Cetegra IT solution.
Power Company
A power company is an enterprise that produces different forms of energy, which it then sells to end users. It could be electrical energy, district heating (the heating of water), gas or similar.
Power Plant
A power plant is a plant which generates electrical energy. Examples are hydropower plants, solar farms and gas-fired power plants.
Power generator
A power generator is a power company that owns power plants and generates electrical power/electrical energy.
Power generation
Power generation is the process of generating electrical power from sources of primary energy.
Power Supplier
A power supplier is a company that you purchase electricity from. You can choose from amongst many different suppliers, all of which offer different prices and terms and conditions.
Power Balance
In an energy-dimensioned production system for electrical energy, ‘power balance’ means the relationship between the system's overall production capacity and the annual consumption of electrical energy.
A Patch is a set of changes to a computer program or supporting data that is intended to improve the functionality, usability or performance of the application.
PEPPOL stands for Pan European Public Procurement Online, and is a digital infrastructure for electronic commerce in Europe. PEPPOL ensures that companies can easily send and receive electronic invoices across national borders.
PSD2 stands for Payment Services Directive No. 2, or the Norwegian Payment Services Directive. It is the latest version of the EU Directive that regulates payment services within the EU and EEA.
PostgreSQL, also known as Postgres, is an open source relational database, also known as a ‘database management system’.
Python is an object-oriented programming language.
Power BI
Power BI is a business intelligence service that is provided by Microsoft. BI is an abbreviation for Business Intelligence.
PaaS is an abbreviation for "Platform as a Service".
Quantum computing
Quantum computing is based on the principles of quantum mechanics and is fundamentally different from ordinary computers.
Responsive Design
Responsive Design is an approach to web and digital product development that aims to create user interfaces that adapt and optimize themselves automatically to various screen sizes and devices.
Reservoir Engineering
Reservoir engineering is a branch of petroleum engineering that applies scientific principles to the fluid flow through porous medium during the development and production of oil and gas reservoirs so as to obtain a high economic recovery.
React is an open-source front-end JavaScript library for building user interfaces based on UI components. It is maintained by Meta (formerly Facebook) and a community of individual developers and companies.
Ransomware is a collective name for a type of malicious code used by cybercriminals to lock access to data or IT systems, or steal data.
Rock physics
Rock physics characterize rock properties based on seismic data to determine the porosity of rocks and the velocity of seismic waves traveling through them.
Renewable energy
Renewable energy is quite simply energy sources which we cannot run out of, e.g. solar, hydro and wind power.
RPA stands for Robot Process Automation. RPA is used to digitalise, or automate, routine tasks using robotics and artificial intelligence.
Robotisation is an initiative that can be part of the automation of a process or a business.
The Red Expert Alliance (REAL) is a global network of Oracle experts.
R (Programming Language)
R is a programming language for statistical data processing and graphical display of data.
Solar Energy
Solar energy is the energy derived from the sun's radiation. It is a renewable and sustainable source of power that can be harnessed for various uses. 
Sustainable Technology
Sustainable technology describes technology created or applied in consideration of environmental, social, and economic factors – aiming to minimize environmental impact, conserve resources, and promote social and economic sustainability. 
Single Point of Failure (SPOF)
Single Point of Failure (SPOF) refers to a non-redundant part of a larger system that can cause a total shutdown of the entire system if it fails.
SQL Health
SQL Health is Managed Services for database monitoring and maintenance of Microsoft SQL Servers.
SQL Server Integration Services (SSIS) is a tool used for data integration and workflow applications.
Sovereign Cloud
Sovereign Cloud is a cloud infrastructure that operates in a specific country or region and meets an organization's legal and ethical data protection standards.
Single sign-on (SSO) is an authentication method that allows users to access multiple applications or systems using a single set of credentials.
Seismic Inversion
In Geophysics (primarily in oil-and-gas exploration/development), seismic inversion is the process of transforming seismic reflection data into a quantitative rock-property description of a reservoir.
SonWin is a Danish settlement solution for the utility sector. Cegal specializes in operating it and the database underneath.
Spring Boot
Spring Boot is an open source, microservice-based Java framework. It provides a good platform for Java developers to develop a stand-alone and production-grade Spring application.
Systemtech helps IT operations managers, finance professionals, hosts and database administrators to create performance and high security on their Microsoft SQL databases and data platforms.
Service Level Agreement (SLA) is an agreement between two or more parties, where one is the customer, and the others are service providers.
Seismic Data
Cegal and BP have jointly developed one of the most advanced Seismic Inversion algorithms available on the market, Blueback ODiSI.
Sustainability is a term that is used to characterize economic, social, institutional and environmental aspects of human societies.
When we talk about “Sandboxing”, we are not referring to the sandpits that children play in at the park, but software sandboxes. These sandboxes have a pivotal purpose: to prevent the spread of an attack.
Scope creep
As you would expect from the name, this term refers to something that gradually keeps getting bigger and bigger.
SQL Service
SQL Service is a niche company which, as its name suggests, works with SQL. The company was founded in Sweden in 2009 and became part of the Cegal family in 2021.
Structured Query Language SQL is a standardised language for querying a database. This is done when you want to modify content or extract data from a relational database.
Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) brings together features of devices or services which developers make available to others.
Statnett is a Norwegian state-owned company which develops, owns and operates the central power distribution grid in Norway.
SmartWeb is a Danish online store provider. SmartWeb has over 6,000 online stores on its platform, in Denmark, Norway and elsewhere.
Smart home
The term ‘smart home’ covers electrical installations which can help to give a home lower energy consumption, greater comfort, easier operation or a higher level of security.
Scrum is a process framework which was developed to support complex product development.
SaaS stands for "Software as a Service". Software as a Service actually refers to software which is provided as a cloud service.
When a Grid company calculates how much you have to pay in grid tariff and your electricity consumption, they will prepare a settlement.
Technical Debt
Technical debt, often referred to as tech debt, represents the potential cost that businesses bear when they choose not to address issues that could impact them down the line.
TypeScript is an open-source programming language developed and maintained by Microsoft.
The CIA Triad
The CIA Triad is a well-known model for developing policies and regulations in the field of information security.
TIA Solution is an application that handles all major insurance processes, and supports and manages the entire insurance value chain.
Tripletex is a Norwegian supplier of accounting systems with the vision of being the first choice and a "one stop shop" for the SME market and accountants
Tardis is an integration between SmartWeb and Tripletex which simplifies customer billing.
Test automation
In software testing, test automation is the use of software which is separate from the software that is being tested in order to monitor the performance of the test and compare the actual outcome with the predicted outcome.
In the oil and gas industry, the term Unconventional refers to resources that differ from conventional reserves in terms of reservoir properties and extraction methods.
Universal Design
Universal Design is a design philosophy and it promotes the idea that design should be inclusive and consider the needs of a diverse and heterogeneous user population.
Unconscious bias
Unconscious bias is attitudes, beliefs, and stereotypes that affect our judgments and decisions without our conscious awareness.
The user interface (UI) is the point of human-computer interaction and communication in a digital product or service.
UX stands for User eXperience design. The applied knowledge of how to design and develop websites and applications to provide the best user experience for all user groups. The focus is on ease of use, utility, desirability, brand perception, and performance.
Velocity Modeling
Velocity modeling or depth conversion is the geophysical method where seismic data are converted from travel time to subsurface depth.
Vue is a JavaScript framework that is used primarily for building user interfaces and single-page applications. It builds on top of standard HTML, CSS and JavaScript, and provides a declarative and component-based programming model.
VMware is the world's leading provider of virtualisation software and private cloud solutions. VMware enables you to use different operating systems such as Windows and Linux simultaneously.
Visma is a supplier of software, outsourcing services, procurement solutions, collection services, store data solutions and IT-related development and consulting services.
White box AI
White box AI (transparent AI) refers to artificial intelligence systems, especially machine learning models, whose internal operations are transparent and easily understandable for humans.
Wind energy
Wind produces electricity by converting the kinetic energy of air in motion into electricity by using wind turbines. 
WCAG, or the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines, is a set of internationally recognized standards and guidelines.
WebLogic is an application server developed by Oracle.
Zero Trust
Zero Trust concerns the level of security that a system should have, and is based around the view that no one at a company can be considered to be completely trustworthy by default (Zero Trust).

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